Dosage compensation and mechanism of sex determination

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Background: Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of sex determination and dosage compensation mechanisms in model organisms such as C. Strikingly, the mechanism involved in sex determination and dosage compensation are very different among these three model organisms. Birds present yet another situation where the heterogametic sex is the female. Sex determination is still poorly understood in birds and few key determinants have so far been identified.
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A balancing act between the X chromosome and the autosomes

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Mechanisms of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation

A mechanism that equalizes the expression of X-linked and autosomal genes by doubling the expression level of X-linked genes in male Drosophila and in both male and female mammals with their single active X. Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? Given that male and female heterogametic systems count chromosomes in opposite directions and show different patterns of dosage compensation , the fact that male-killers operate in both these hosts suggests that the X:autosome counting mechanism and the dosage compensation pathway may not be the focus of male-killing activity; rather, somatic sex determination or germ-line sex determination may be the focus. It enables males to double the expression of the genes in their single X chromosome - a process called dosage compensation - by binding to the body of those genes together with a protein called MOF.
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Sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation in the chicken model

In the previous chapter we introduced sex chromosomes and autosomes. For loci on autosomes, the alleles follow the normal Mendelian pattern of inheritance. However, for loci on the sex chromosomes this is mostly not true, because most of the loci on the typical X-chromosome are absent from the Y-chromosome, even though they act as a homologous pair during meiosis.
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Dosage compensation is the process by which organisms equalize the expression of genes between members of different biological sexes. Across species, different sexes are often characterized by different types and numbers of sex chromosomes. In order to neutralize the large difference in gene dosage produced by differing numbers of sex chromosomes among the sexes, various evolutionary branches have acquired various methods to equalize gene expression among the sexes. Because sex chromosomes contain different numbers of genes , different species of organisms have developed different mechanisms to cope with this inequality.
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